ii V I is the single most common chord progression used in jazz.
Popular jazz standards such as Autumn Leaves, Perdido and many more are focused around this progression – making it a must know, and a great starting point for learning jazz.
While jazz players often use chord substitutions, this example is a straightforward ii V I progression in the key of C Major.
The ii Chord wants to move forward to the V Chord, and the V Chord wants to resolve to the I (or the tonic).
You can think of a ii V I progression as Setup > Tension > Resolution.
Work through the chord voicings, arpeggios, and recommended scale, and then create your own riffs using these tools.
While chord voicings, scales, arpeggios, and riffs can of course be played in many positions across the neck, the goal is to learn and practice specific voicings and positions at a time, rather than trying to learn everything at once.